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Adhesive types

2018-06-05 21:45:59

Adhesives, also known as gluecementmucilage, or paste, is any substance applied to one surface, or both surfaces, of two separate items that binds them together and resists their separation. Adjectives may be used in conjunction with the word "adhesive" to describe properties based on the substance's physical or chemical form, the type of materials joined, or conditions under which it is applied.

The use of adhesives offers many advantages over binding techniques such as sewingmechanical fasteningthermal bonding, etc. These include the ability to bind different materials together, to distribute stress more efficiently across the joint, the cost effectiveness of an easily mechanized process, an improvement in aesthetic design, and increased design flexibility. Disadvantages of adhesive use include decreased stability at high temperatures, relative weakness in bonding large objects with a small bonding surface area, and greater difficulty in separating objects during testing. Adhesives are typically organized by the method of adhesion. These are then organized into reactive and non-reactive adhesives, which refers to whether the adhesive chemically reacts in order to harden. Alternatively they can be organized by whether the raw stock is of natural or synthetic origin, or by their starting physical phase.

Adhesives may be found naturally or produced synthetically. The earliest human use of adhesive-like substances was approximately 200,000 years ago, when Neanderthals produced tar from the dry distillation of birch bark for use in binding stone tools to wooden handles.The first references to adhesives in literature first appeared in approximately 2000 BC. The Greeks and Romans made great contributions to the development of adhesives. In Europe, glue was not widely used until the period AD 1500–1700. From then until the 1900s increases in adhesive use and discovery were relatively gradual. Only since the last century has the development of synthetic adhesives accelerated rapidly, and innovation in the field continues to the present. Adhesives and glues classified into following:

White Craft Glue:This is the most common craft glue for porous lightweight materials such as paper, cardboard, cloth, and kids’ crafts. 

Yellow Wood Glue: Yellow wood glue is also water based – and is made of the same vinyl acetate polymers as craft glue.  It is designed to work with wood and is immediately tacky for better hold in the uncured state.  It is also generally more rigid, hence it is easier to sand. Some wood glue can also be white and dry clear.  Make sure to read the labels.  Again, you can add sawdust or another powdered filler for special effects. 

Super Glue (also known as cyanoacrylate adhesives): Cyanoacrylate adhesives bond very quickly and to a range of substrates.  They form a very strong bond and dry clear.  The surfaces to be mated must fit together well to achieve good bonding.  You can buy super glue in a variety of viscosities which enable some leeway in gap filling performance.  However, super glues can be finicky with respect to surface contact and coverage- too much or too little can affect the bond.   In general, super glues are not good for foamed plastic, unless specified on the bottle. Cyanoacrylates work best in tensile applications that have low impact strength requirements.  In their uncured state, you can use an acetone solvent wipe for cleanup.  However, once cured, solvents can no longer dissolve the adhesive. Cyanoacrylates work particularly well for balsa wood projects.  Carpenters often use a two part cyanoacrylate to quickly bond mitered wood trim. Cyanoacrylates can set in seconds to minutes, depending on formulation. 

Hot glue: The melting and cooling of polymers provides the methods of delivery and adhesion for hot melt adhesives.  Hot glue is most commonly applied using a glue gun and comes in low (250°F) and high (380°F) melting options.  Many varieties and performances are available depending on the polymer type.  Hot glue can be used on porous and non-porous surfaces. Because of its high viscosity, it can bond uneven surfaces together and is great at filling gaps. 

Pressure sensitive adhesives (PSA)PSAs are available in sheets and dots and can be used in a multitude of craft projects to include substrates such as lightweight paper, plastic, metal, and glass.

Spray adhesives: A spray adhesive is a contact adhesive based in a solvent that is applied by spray.  When using spray adhesives, it is important that you apply in a well-ventilated room.  After spraying your project, allow the solvent to completely evaporate before mating for immediate bond.  Once mated, you cannot reposition your substrates. Spray adhesives can be used with paper, foam board, fabrics, photo, and felt.  Specialty contact adhesives are also available in a can to roll or brush on for larger, more demanding projects that involve wood, metal, and plastic sheet laminates. Application example: Spray adhesives are an excellent choice for adhering photos or fabrics to a foam board back.

Fabric adhesives: Fabric adhesives can be liquid white glues like polyvinyl acetate (PVA) types. A variety of products cover lightweight to heavyweight fabric bonding, so it is important to get the correct product to match the hand or drape of your project.  Some versions are safe for washing and dry cleaning, but it’s important to read the glue’s label first. There is an expanded selection of nonwoven tapes and fusing adhesives in rolled good form, which range from highly flexible to stiff for fabric and leather projects and garment construction. These can be found in sewing and fabric stores and can bond permanently without bleed through for a very durable craft. Fabric adhesives can be used to fix a hem that is falling apart and for DIY projects like making headbands or constructing fabric/foam laminated computer sleeves.

Epoxy: Epoxies are generally two part systems designed for high performance bonding.  While epoxies can be formulated to suit many applications, they are generally very hard, durable adhesives that bond to many substrates successfully in more extreme environments.   Epoxy adhesives can exhibit a range of flexibility and clarity as well as cure speed. Epoxies have excellent gap filling properties due to their high cohesive strength.

Polyurethane: Polyurethane adhesives bond a variety of surfaces. They bond to textile fibers, metals, plastics, glass, sand, ceramics, rubber, and wood. Polyurethane is a multipurpose glue that comes in one part and two part options. Polyurethanes can work well on a wide variety of wood species, particularly on woods with high moisture content or on oily woods, where other glues are not as successful. Clamping is required until strength is built; a few hours.  Full strength is achieved in six to eight hours for a very strong and tough bond. Before completely cured, polyurethane adhesives can be removed using solvents such as mineral spirits or acetone. Dried glue can be sanded.   

Glue Sticks: Glue sticks are great for kids!  They are a low bonding adhesive, but do provide a permanent bond on various types of paper to include cardboard, foam board, and poster board.  Glue dries clear. This kind of adhesive used in sealing envelopes, applying labels, paper crafting, art projects, scrapbooking.

Adhesives and glues manufacturing process can be made easily using economic, regular raw materials and chemicals,  just you need to buy the formulas online from for producing and manufacturing adhesives  at this link. These formulas are recommended for small business and beginners.


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